Glossary - U


An uninstaller, also called a deinstaller, is a utility software designed to remove previously installed software or parts of it from a computer. Most software programs come with their own uninstallers, but sometimes they are not entirely effective and most are known to leave orphan files behind.  These left over files can be removed completely by using the computer’s operating system tools, which are generally better and safer.

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Universal Serial Bus or USB, is an external peripheral interface standard for communication between a computer and its external peripherals.  USB was collaboration between many companies including Compaq®, Hewlett-Packard®, Intel®, Lucent®, NEC®, Microsoft® and Philips®. Designed in 1995 it was intended to replace the existing connections standard (serial port, parallel port for monitor and keyboard) with a universal connections standard for a wider range of peripherals including printers, scanners, external hard drives, flash discs, mice, keyboards, joysticks, cameras etc. Even the lowest data rate of USB far exceeds the possibility of a serial port. The advantage of the USB is that it supports up to 127 devices and both synchronous and asynchronous data transfers.  This means it can support peripherals simply by plug and play without rebooting or installing drivers. The device can be connected to a running computer and in a few seconds is available for use.


The opposite of download, upload refers to the transmission of data from a computer to another system (PC, server, online storage, etc.). It is possible to upload and download at the same time, but it may cause slower transfer speeds, especially if the user has a low bandwidth connection. Since most files are located on Internet servers, people generally do a lot more downloading than uploading.

Direct data transfer between two users or systems necessitates that one (the sender) must be uploading and the other (the receiver) must be downloading.

USB Flash drive

USB flash memory (sometimes called USB flash drive) is a storage device that has since come to replace the diskette or optical rewritable media. The device usually takes the form of a stick and is equipped with flash memory that allows for data storage even when the power is off. Data is recorded to the stick via USB, and it is from this connection that part of the device’s name is taken.

The commercial production of flash drives commenced in 2000, by companies such as IBM® and Trek Technology©. Flash drives first appeared on the market on December 15, 2000.The first drives from IBM® had a capacity of 8 MB, which exceeded the normal capacity of floppy disks by five times. Modern flash drives work with USB 2.0, but do not reach its full throughput of 480 Mbit / sec (60 MB/sec). This is due to NAND technology. Typical transfer rates are therefore about 6 MB/s, but these can vary with the use of different chips.

Typical flash drives consist of simple, utilitarian designs made ​​of plastic, rubber or metal. Flash drives can also be included in commonly used items such as pens, watches and pocket knives. Some devices are designed for extreme conditions, such as to withstand a deep freeze, high temperatures or extreme pressure.

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